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  1. Introduction
  2. Network Topology
  3. Hardware Connections
  4. TCP/IP Ports and Addresses
  5. Network Protocol Levels
  6. Data Link Layer and IEEE
  7. Network Protocol Categories
  8. Repeaters, Bridges, Routers
  9. ARP and RARP Address Translation
  10. Basic Addressing
  11. IP (Network)
  12. TCP (Transport)
  13. UDP (Transport)
  14. ICMP
  15. Hardware Cabling
  16. Wireless media
  17. Outside Connections
  18. Ethernet
  19. Token Ring
  20. ARCnet
  21. AppleTalk
  22. FDDI
  23. IPX/SPX
  24. NetBEUI
  25. AppleTalk
  26. SNA
  27. Others
  28. Simple Routing
  29. More Complex Routing
  30. IP Masquerading
  31. Firewalls
  32. Domain Name Service (DNS)
  33. Virtual Private Networking
  34. DHCP
  35. BOOTP
  36. RPC and NFS
  37. Broadcasting and Multicasting
  38. IGMP
  39. Dynamic Routing Protocols
  40. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  41. Simple Network Management Protocol
  42. Network Services
  43. Installing Drivers
  44. Network Operating Systems
  45. Applications
  46. Wide Area Networks
  47. Backing up the network
  48. Fault Tolerance
  49. Troubleshooting
  50. Commonly used Network Ports
  51. Networking Terms and Definitions
  52. Networking RFCs and Protocols
  53. Further Reading
  54. Credits

Network Fault Tolerance

Redundant Array of Inexpensive disks (RAID)

RAID is a fault tolerant method of storing data, meaning that a failure can occur and the system will still function. The various RAID categories are:

  • 0 - Disk striping - Data is written across multiple drives in parallel. Different parts of the data is written at the same time to more than one drive. If there are two drives, half the data is written to one drive, while the rest of the data is written to the other drive. All partitions on striped drives must be the same size. No fault tolerance is provided with RAID-0.
  • 1 - Disk mirroring - All the data is written to two drives so each drive has a complete of all stored data. If one drive fails, the other can be used to get a copy of the data. To be more fault tolerant, more than one controller card may be used to control the mirrored hard drives. This is called disk duplexing and will allow the system to keep functioning if one controller card fails.
  • 2 - Disk striping with error correction codes (ECC).
  • 3 - Disk striping with ECC parity information stored on a separate drive.
  • 4 - Disk striping with blocks with parity information stored on a separate drive.
  • 5 - Disk striping with blocks with parity information stored using multiple drives. Uses five disks with one fifth of each one to store parity information.

Sector Sparing

Sector sparing will detect when data is going to be read from or written to a bad sector on the hard drive and will move the data to a good sector. The bad sector is marked as not available so it is not used again.

Windows NT support

Supports RAID-0,1, and 5 along with sector sparing.


  • DAT - Digital Audio Tape
  • Sector Sparing - A method of fault tolerance that automatically identifies and marks bad sectors as not available. It is also called hot-fixing.
  • SLED - Single Large Inexpensive disk - The concept that a large disk costs less per amount of storage than several smaller ones. Somehow this concept is used as a means of fault tolerance.