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  1. Introduction
  2. About Linux
  3. Installation and getting started
  4. Logging in and out
  5. Basic Linux Commands
  6. Linux Files and File Permissions
  7. Linux Directory Structure
  8. Finding Files
  9. Linux Help
  10. Setting Time
  11. Devices
  12. Tips
  13. Accessing Other Filesystems
  14. Accessing Removable Media
  15. Making and Managing Filesystems
  16. Emergency Filesystems and Procedures
  17. LILO and Runlevels
  18. Init
  19. Environment, Shell Selection, and Startu
  20. Linux Kernel
  21. Package Installation and Printing
  22. Configuration, Logging and CRON
  23. Keys and Terminal Configuration
  24. Sound Configuration
  25. Managing Users
  26. Passwords
  27. Process Control
  28. Configuration and Diagnostic Tools
  29. Overall Configuration
  30. Using PAM
  31. Basic Network Setup
  32. Tools and Terms
  33. Novell and Printing
  34. Inetd Services
  35. Xinetd Services
  36. Other Network Services
  37. FTP and Telnet
  38. Samba
  39. Identd (auth)
  40. X Configuration
  41. X Use
  42. Using X Remotely
  43. X Documentation
  44. DNS
  45. DHCP and BOOTP
  46. Apache
  47. NFS
  48. PPP
  49. Mail
  50. Routing
  51. IP Masquerading
  52. Proxy Servers and ipchains
  53. UUCP
  54. News
  55. NIS
  56. Network Security
  57. Secure Shell
  58. Text Processing
  59. Shell Programming
  60. Emacs
  61. VI
  62. Recommended Reading
  63. Credits

Linux Tips

Multiple Virtual Terminal access

There are normally 6 virtual terminals in Linux, available by using Alt-F1 through Alt-F6. Each one can be logged in as a different user. There are normally 6 terminals available in X also, F7 through F12. The first X session will be on F7 (if on a local terminal), the second on F8, and so forth. If an X session is started from F1 and you also have an active session on F2, you can type Ctrl-Alt-F2 to go from the X session to the virtual console on F2. Also to get back to your X session, you can type Ctrl-Alt-F7. This example assumes that your terminals are setup in the standard manner with 6 virtual terminals that spawn the getty program available. You can check your setup by checking your /etc/inittab file. You should have lines like the following in your file.

1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1
2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2
3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3
4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4
5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5
6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6

See the section on init for further information on this file.

Linux Command line shortcuts

If typing a command on the command line, you can press <TAB> before the command is complete and if there are enough characters for it to be unique, the system will finish the command for you. If it is not yet unique, and <TAB> is pressed twice, you will be given choices.

Pasting text in files

There is a cut and paste mouse utility that works with virtual consoles called gpm which runs as a daemon. To use it,

  1. Move your mouse to the text you want to cut or paste
  2. Hold the left mouse button down
  3. Drag the mouse to the end of the selected text
  4. Release the mouse button
  5. If deleting text, just press the "DEL" key for your final step. If pasting text, move the text cursor to the location you want to paste to by switching terminals with function keys, using arrow keys, etc.
  6. If pasting, press the right mouse button.

Viewing previously displayed text

Text that has scrolled off the top of the screen may be viewed again using the <SHIFT><PgUp> key combination. The Keys in the numbers section on the far right of the keypad do not work for this function, only the grey PgUp and PgDn keys just to the right of the <Enter> key. If you want other keys to perform this function, it would be necessary to map them for bash shell keymapping. Pressing any other key other than <SHIFT><PgUp> or <SHIFT><PgDn> will bring you back to the normal screen location.