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  1. Introduction
  2. OSI Layers
  3. Addresses
  4. SNMP
  5. Network Tools
  6. Routing
  7. ARP
  8. WINS
  9. DNS
  10. NIS
  11. DHCP
  12. Name Resolution
  13. RAS
  14. Connections
  15. Test Pointers
  16. Items to remember
  17. Terms
  18. Credits

TCP/IP Terms

  1. Abstraction - Different devices of similar type are made to look the same to upper layer software.
  2. Account policy - Determines how passwords are validated and how unsuccessful login attempts are handled.
  3. ACE - Access Control Entry - Part of an ACL which specifies a users access to specific objects.
  4. ACL - Access Control List is a database of permissions for an object or file which determines who can access an object and how much access is allowed.
  5. ActiveX - Applications use this technology to share information. Based on component object modules (COM)
  6. Answer files - Files requires to answer the system queries during an unattended installation normally sent to the monitor during an attended installation.
  7. ARC - Advanced RISC computing.
  8. Asymmetric multiprocessing (ASMP) - The operating system and kernel have full access to one processor, and the user applications share the other processors.
  9. Audit policy - Determines the amount and type of security logging that Windows NT performs.
  10. Backbone - High speed link that connects subnetworks
  11. Boot Loader - Loads an operating system, and usually is installed on the master boot record of a hard drive. The NT boot loader is NTLDR.EXE.
  12. Bootsect.dos- contains the boot sector information for an other operating system and its system files.
  13. Bridge - Connects different subnetworks
  14. CAL - A client access license (CAL) is purchased for each computer allowing that client to attach to any number of servers. This is used with per seat licensing.
  15. Callback feature - A RAS security feature that can only call a single number which means multilink ability to a single number rather than to multiple numbers may be used with the call back feature.
  16. CDFS - File system for CD-ROM.
  17. CHAP (MD5) - Challenge handshake authentication protocol is supported for outbound connections. An authentication method for remote access.
  18. CISC - Complex instruction set computing
  19. Compatibility - Runs current windows applications and is compatible with current interfaces and filesystems.
  20. Configuration commands - Config.nt file commands that support MS-DOS.
  21. Configuration Registry Database - Contains system information from hardware information to installed software.
  22. Context Switching - The act of moving a process between the CPU and memory.
  23. Control Panel - Where applets reside that are used to configure system parameters such as networking, video display drivers, keyboard, modems and more.
  24. Control Set - A complete set of parameters used to start services and devices. An example is LastKnownGood.
  25. Cooperative Multitasking - Process in which the applications cooperate by releasing control of the processor. Windows 16 bit applications run this way.
  26. CPS - Computer Profile Setup is a utility for making a profile of a Windows NT system so it can be loaded onto identical computers.
  27. CSNW - Client Services for NetWare supports client services.
  28. DCE - Data carrier equipment is used to carry data signals.
  29. DCOM - Distributed Component Object Model is a method provided by Microsoft to optimize performance of network programs by allowing the distribution of processes on multiple servers.
  30. Demand-paging - The process of swapping memory between the RAM and the hard drive. The virtual memory manager performs this function.
  31. DES - Data Encryption Standard for older clients and servers.
  32. Direct Draw - A component of DirectX. Allows objects to be manipulated in video memory while remaining device-independent
  33. DirectPlay - A component of DirectX. Computers communications across a network are transparent to the application. This used for multi user video games.
  34. DirectSound - A component of DirectX. Provides access to audio hardware with features that include volume control, real-time mixing, and special effects.
  35. DirectX - A media interface providing accelerated support for high speed user response through direct access to the media device. It supports video, audio, and network interaction between applications. Components are:
  36. Distribution share - A shared network directory that contains Windows NT CD-ROM files.
  37. Current Control Set Control - The most recent control set used to start the computer.
  38. DDE - Dynamic Data Exchange Services allows applications running on the system to exchange data such as through the clipboard.
  39. DDI - Device driver interface calls are driver requests that match the printing characteristics of the print device. These calls are later translated into raw commands that the printer understands.
  • Demand-paging - The process of swapping memory between the RAM and the hard drive. The virtual memory manager performs this function.
  • DES - Data Encryption Standard for older clients and servers.
  • DFS - Distributed File System service
  • DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration protocol is a protocol used to dynamically assign addresses to computers and perform other limited configuration.
  • DLC - Data Link Control (DLC) - The protocol for SNA mainframes and does not support higher level protocols but can be uset to allow migration to NT.
  • DLE - Data Link equipment transmits information into frames.
  • DNS - Domain Name service for conversion between computer names and IP addresses.
  • Domain - Computers join a domain, but users must have an account on the domain.
  • Drop - Required for each networked device.
  • DSMN - Directory service manager allows netware accounts to be transferred to and managed by an NT Domain controller.
  • DTE - Data terminal equipment
  • DUN -Dial up Networking.
  • EMF - Extended metafile format is a journal file print job.
  • Enhanced Scalability - Allows domains and trust relationships between domains to support WANs.
  • Enterprise Network - Large network with servers which maintains a central database to manage user accounts and access. There are four types which are single, master, multiple master and complete trust.
  • Environment Variables - Each variable is a string of various environment information. It may contain path or other system information and is used by the system to help find or associate files with programs. Environment variables are also used by users to customize their settings.
  • ERD - Emergency Repair disk
  • exabyte- One million terabytes
  • Executive Services - Interface between the kernel and user levels and is the top layer of the executive module.
  • Executive Services layer - It supports device drivers, memory management, I/O, processes, threads, IPC, security, window management and graphics device interaction.
  • Extensibility (modularity) - The design ot the operating system is modular providing new functionality.
  • FAT - File allocation table filesystem used originally by DOS uses file allocation tables to manage disk space.
  • File system driver component (session and presentation layers). This is the layer where the redirector works to direct access to a remote computer when required.
  • FPNW - File and print service for NetWare allows an NT server to act as a NetWare file and print server.
  • Frame - Frames contain routing information and carry data packets.
  • FSD - File system drivers are used for file and printer sharing.
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Service - Allows for file transfer between two computers.
  • GDI - Graphics Device Interface provides a single system for presenting graphic information to the user through the monitor and it translates print requests into driver requests that match the printing characteristics of the print device called device driver interface (DDI) calls
  • Gigabyte - 1000 Megabytes.
  • Global group - The groups permissions and rights exist in the group's domain and domains that have a trust relationship with the group's domain
  • GSNW - Gateway Services for NetWare is used to support workstations without NWLink or CSNW installed so they can connect to a NetWare server through a GSNW.
  • Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) - Isolates the hardware from the system for multi-platform support. Some computers may use a BIOS specific HAL.
  • HPFS - High Performance File System is used with computers running OS/2 on large hard disks.
  • IDE - Intelligent Drive Electronics hard drive controller interface. A low cost interface.
  • IDF - Intermediate distribution frame is space for wiring in central closets which may be the central point of a star on a star network.
  • IEU - Instruction execution unit is used on RISC computers to emulate the i386 based instruction set for the NTVDM.
  • Impersonation Capability - A process can assume another process's security attributes.
  • Internationalization - Enables support of various languages by supporting the International Standards Organization (ISO) Unicode standard.
  • Internetwork - Networks connected using routers.
  • internet - The world wide web
  • intranet - Use of internet functions such as www, FTP, and gopher on internal networks
  • IPC - Inter Process Communications
  • IPX - Internet Packet Exchange protocol from Novell.
  • IRP - I/O Request Packet is a data structure used between device drivers to communicate.
  • ISDN - Integrated services digital network treated like a network adapter. Normas ISDN service includes two 64-kilobit data channels (B channels) and 1 16-kilobit data channel (D channel). The D channel is used for control and management of the link.
  • Journal file print job - A list of DDI calls that can produce a raw print job. Produced when the printing device is local
  • Kernel mode (Ring 0) - Executive which runs in protected memory mode with full privileges.
  • LastKnownGood (LKG) - The last good control set that was used to load the NT operating system.
  • Legacy - Devices that can't be queried by the operating system for configuration information, but are set manually.
  • LIP - Large Internet Protocol allows routed connections to negotiate the largest packet size.
  • Local group - Has local computer permissions and rights only
  • Local Procedure Call - A communication mechanism between the environmental subsystem and applications that works similar to Remote Procedure Calls at a local level.
  • Logical Port - A virtual port which describes a network connection to a remote device such as a print device or server.
  • Logon authentication - Restricts network access to users with a valid logon name and password.
  • LRU - Least Recently algorithm is an algorithm used by Windows systems to help manage page files.
  • Mailslots - A connection less one-way connection channel in which data is sent with no acknowledgment of receipt. This is similar to named pipes except named pipes are connection oriented.
  • Modular (extensibile)- NT modular construction allows it to have cross platform portability.
  • MPR - Multi-Provider Router is used for applications that use the Win32 API. It knows what redirector handles a specific mapped drive.
  • MS-CHAP (MD4) - An authentication method for remote access. Uses a Microsoft version of RSA message digest 4 challenge and reply protocol. It only works on Microsoft systems and enables data encryption. Selecting this authentification method causes all data to be encrypted.
  • Multilink - Allows a combination of serial lines to be used together to increase bandwidth of a connection.
  • Multitasking - Sharing tasks on one computer whether there be multiple processors or not.
  • Multiprocessing - Using multiple microprocessors on one computer.
  • MUP - Multiple Universal Naming Convention Provider is used to redirect requests to the correct network service. It is the Windows single interface to all network resources. The redirector names or IDs for shares accessed are cached for 15 minutes. If the share was not accessed in the last fifteen minutes, the redirectors are tried by order of their binding priority order.
  • Native commands - NT internal and external commands that use the 32 bit operating system.
  • NBT - NetBIOS over TCP/IP.
  • NCP - NetWare Core Protocol provides file and print services on a NetWare server. NCP is similar in functionality to Microsoft's Server Message Blocks (SMB) protocol.
  • NDC - Non domain controllers. all computers in a workgroup are NDC
  • NDIS - Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) is a boundary layer running on top of the network drivers, deciding which protocol to use.
  • NDS - NetWare Directory Services allows clients to browse the NetWare directory tree structure of available computers on a NetWare network. NT 4.0 supports this service as a new feature.
  • NetBEUI - The main protocol used for networking in the windows environment. NetBIOS Extended User Interface works at the transport layer and provides data transportation. It is not a routable transport protocol.
  • NetBIOS - Network Basic Input/Output allows browsing of network resources and handles basic functions of a Windows network. Two way acknowledged data transfer is used.
  • NetDDE - Network Dynamic Data Exchange opens pipes across the network between two applications. Communication with the network components is facilitated with NetBios APIs by NetDDE.
  • NetRules subkey - Used to specify the network components included in the network.
  • Network - A group of subnetworks that are connected using a bridge or switch.
  • NTFS - New Technology file system for Windows NT provides more features for file ownership and security.
  • NLM is a NetWare Loadable Module which is an application running on a NetWare server.
  • NTHQ NT Hardware Qualifier Utility - This program will inspect the computer for hardware incompatibility problems
  • NTVDM - Virtual DOS machine is a DOS emulator used on NT to run DOS applications.
  • NWLink - Microsoft's implementation of the IPX/SPX protocol.
  • Object - A system item that may include functions and attributes (data). It may be a physical object such as RAM. It usually refers to a runtime instance of an object the system has access to or can modify.
  • Object handle - A data unit that is a unique identifier allowing access to a particular object. An example is a handle for a file which is used to control file operations such as opening, closing, reading, and writing to the file.
  • Object type - An object type defined by the system with attributes and functions.
  • OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer.
  • OLE - Applications use this technology to share information. Based on component object modules (COM).
  • OpenGL - A two and three dimensional color graphics industry software standard programming interface. Windows supports 16 color VGA mode and others support 256 color VGA mode. Uses dedicated processors on video cards. Win32 is required for this technology.
  • Pages - Memory in 4K chunks.
  • Page swapping - A process used to exchange memory between RAM and page file storage on permanent media to support virtual memory.
  • PAP - Password Authentication Protocol is a plain text password used on older SLIP systems. It is not secure.
  • Partition - A division in a hard drive which allows multiple areas on the drive to appear independently as separate drives.
  • PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association is an industry standard for peripheral devices used on laptop and notebook computers. It is normally just a little larger than a credit card. It can perform the same functions as many normal PC add on cards including network interface, modem card, or hard drive controllers.
  • PDC - Primary domain controller.
  • Per Seat licensing - A client access license (CAL) is purchased for each computer allowing that client to attach to any number of servers.
  • Per Server licensing - Only a specific number of users can connect to a specific server at one time.
  • PING - Packet InterNet Groper
  • Physical Port - A physically wired connection such as a serial or parallel communications port.
  • PNP - Plug and play devices can have resources configured by the operating system.
  • Portability - Allows Windows NT to run on various platforms such as those with RISC or CISC processors.
  • POST - Power on self test is a test performed by the system BIOS when the system is first turned on.
  • PPP - PPP - Point to Point Protocol, used for serial connections to a network ot the internet. (RFC 1332, 1548). Supports AppleTalk, IPX, TCP/IP, and NetBEUI as a transport protocol.
  • PPTP - Point to point tunneling protocol (PPTP) for virtual private networking (VPN) over RAS. PPTP encrypts and encapsulates other networking protocols into TCP/IP packets to send them over the internet
  • PSTN - Public switched telephone network using a modem.
  • Preemptive Multitasking - The operating system schedules all thread and process tasking. The processes do not have control over their own scheduling.
  • Primary Token - Used for access validation when threads attempt to use protected objects.
  • Printer - In Windows, it refers to the printer driver software which interacts with the print device to be sure the print job is formatted for that print device. Provides the interface to view and modify print jobs. This is also known as the print queue.
  • Print device - The device that physically prints on paper.
  • Print driver - Translates DDI calls into commands for the specific print device
  • Print job - The print job is the request to print.
  • Printer Pools - One printer driver has access to several printer devices and uses the first one that is available. It is used when a particular print driver is used often by several users.
  • Print monitor - Transmits the print job to the print device and reports the condition of the print device
  • Print processor - Processes DDI calls into printer instructions
  • Print router - Directs the print job to the correct print spooler providing the print service.
  • Print spooler or provider - Accepts print jobs from the router for a local or remote printer, uses the print processor to make required modifications to the print job, and sends print jobs one at a time to the print monitor
  • Process - Composed of one or more threads with their own address space.
  • Process - Made of one or more threads it is generally a program which may create other threads that run semi-independently of its process.
  • PWS - Peer web services
  • RAS - Remote access service is the NT service used to connect remotely over communications line to hosts or a network.
  • Raw print job - Instructions the printer can use to produce the printed document
  • Redirector - Works at the filesystem layer of Microsoft's network model to direct access to a remote computer when required.
  • Registry key - One of the component parts of the system registry database.
  • Reliability - Applications are protected so they cannot corrupt each other or the system. Error handling support is provided using structured exception-handling routines.
  • RISC - Reduced instruction set computer designed to be faster with the idea that a microprocessor with fewer instructions can run faster.
  • Roaming Profile - A user's profile settings stored on an NT server and downloaded to the computer that the user logs onto. This way the same user's profile can be available on any machine. The user's profile includes wallpaper settings, color schemes, sound settings and other settings.
  • Router - Connects subnets with different topologies.
  • RPC - Remote Procedure Call provides an ability for a remote computer to call a procedure residing in a server process which is running on a remote machine. Remote computers can use this mechanism to send data to and run programs on server computers and receive the data output from the program being run on the server computer.
  • SAM - Security account manager which is a database of information used to manage user accounts and security policies. It is also known as the directory services database.
  • Scalability - NT can run on computers with multiple CPUs sharing the same memory
  • SCSI - Small Computer System Interface is an industry standard for interfacing to devices such as hard drives.
  • Security access token - Used by the system to compare to object's access control lists to determine if the user has access to the object.
  • Security descriptor - Used by the system to define the object's owner, groups with access, and access control list.
  • Server service - Manages security and creation of resources that are shared. It processes client connection requests and may deny requests.
  • SID - Security ID is a unique number used to identify a user on a system.
  • SLIP - Serial Line Interface Protocol used for serial connections to networks or hosts. Only TCP/IP can be used as a transport protocol with SLIP. Does not support dynamic IP address assignments.
  • SMB - Server Message Block protocol used on Microsoft Networks.
  • SMP - Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) shares all tasks whether they are operating system tasks or user processes between the available processors. Windows NT uses symmetric multiprocessing.
  • SPAP - Shiva PAP. An authentication method for remote access. Only NT RAS server supports this for clients dialing in.
  • SQL - Structured query language is a database language.
  • Stripe Set - A process of utilizing partitions across multiple hard drives to allow data to be written to the hard drives in parallel, thus increasing access speed and reducing reliability. Drive space on each separate partition must be of the same capacity. If one partition fails, the whole stripe fails.
  • Subkey - Part of a registry key.
  • Subnetwork - Part of a network that may use one specific data link layer protocol such as ethernet.
  • Subsystem commands - 16 bit MS-DOS commands.
  • Subtree - A top level system registry key.
  • Switch - Subnetworks of the same or different topology may be connected depending on the type of switch.
  • Symmetric multiprocessing - All processors are shared by user applications and the operating system.
  • System Partition - The hard drive partition that contains system files for booting such as NTLDR, BOOT.INI, and NTDETECT.COM.
  • TAPI - Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) is a set of standards that manage dial up functions.
  • Target system Computer - The master system profile is copied to this computer.
  • TCP/IP - Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is the set of protocols used on the internet. When NetBIOS uses TCP/IP for the transport protocol, it is called NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP) and is generally used on large networks
  • TDI - Transport driver interface is an interface between the file system driver component (redirector) and the transport protocol component.
  • Terabyte - 1000 Gigabytes
  • Tetabyte - One million gigabytes.
  • Thread - The most basic entity that can be scheduled.
  • Thunking - A process used by the WOW subsystem to intercept and translate 16 bit system calls to 32 bit system calls.
  • TSR - Terminate and stay resident, refers to a program that terminates from the user area, but part of it runs in the background after its apparent termination.
  • Uniqueness Database Files (UDF) - Used to insert the User name, organization, and computer name in the [UserData]section of the unattend.txt file.
  • User mode (Ring 3) - Runs with privileges to access its own memory area. User applications and environmental subsystems execute in this mode.
  • User mode interface - Determines the filesystem the user request is for.
  • User Rights policy - Determines what users and groups can perform specific actions on the system.
  • Value entry - The reference or name of a parameter used to store a data entry in the system registry.
  • VDM - Virtual DOS machine is a DOS emulator used on NT to run dos applications.
  • Virtual memory - Allows virtual memory space larger than physical RAM by using the hard drive and swapping memory between RAM and the hard drive.
  • VFAT - Virtual File Allocation Table is a new version of the FAT file system.
  • Volume set - A group of several partitions lumped together to appear as one drive.
  • VPN - Virtual Private Networking. The function of VPN is to allow two computers or networks to talk to each other over a transport media that is not secure, but the network is made secure by VPN security protocols.
  • Windows Sockets - A Windows application programming interface (API) that allows interface to transport mechanisms such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX. It provides a two way connection oriented data transfer between computers.
  • Winnt32.exe - Used to install NT from a 32 bit operating system (such as NT) as a local install or over a network.
  • WINS - Windows Internet Name Services
  • Workgroup - Small group with mainly peer to peer communications. Its size should be 10 users or less.
  • Workstation service - Enables connections to shared directories, logging in and supports IPC mechanisms.
  • WORM - Write once, read many. A special type of optical hard drive used to record transactions and permanent data. Typically used by application servers.
  • WORM program - Is a type of computer virus that takes advantages of weaknesses in operating systems.
  • WOW - Windows16 on Windows32, the subsystem that allows 16 bit Windows applications that run on Windows 3.1 and Windows for Workgroups to run on Windows NT 32 bit architecture
  • write back caching - An NT process which writes data immediately to the disk and preserves the written data in memory cache to speed data access to permanent storage media.
  • Write through caching - Caching between the hard drive and a RAM buffer where writes to disk cache are immediately written to the hard drive.
  • X.25 - Frame relay over leased line treated like a network adapter.